Andy Clarke

Andy Clarke

Andy is a senior investment strategist in Vanguard Investment Strategy Group. Before joining Vanguard in 1997, he worked at Morningstar. During his tenure at Vanguard, Andy wrote "Wealth of Experience," an introduction to investing based on ordinary people's stories about what has—and hasn't—worked as they've tried to meet their financial goals. Andy holds a B.A. from Haverford College and an M.S. from West Chester University. He is a CFA® charterholder.

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Visit or contact your broker to obtain a Vanguard ETF or fund prospectus which contains investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other information; read and consider carefully before investing.

Vanguard ETF Shares are not redeemable with the issuing Fund other than in very large aggregations worth millions of dollars. Instead, investors must buy and sell Vanguard ETF Shares in the secondary market and hold those shares in a brokerage account. In doing so, the investor may incur brokerage commissions and may pay more than net asset value when buying and receive less than net asset value when selling.

Investments in bond funds are subject to interest rate, credit, and inflation risk.

Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss in a declining market.

Foreign investing involves additional risks including currency fluctuations and political uncertainty.

Stocks of companies in emerging markets are generally more risky than stocks of companies in developed countries.

All investing is subject to risk, including possible loss of principal.

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